37 simple Human Anatomy Questions

Question Description

1.

(03.07 MC)

Which of the endocrine glands below are located in the abdomen and are correctly paired with their function? (2 points)

Thymus: immune system; hypothalamus: growth and development
Hypothalamus: immune system; thymus: growth and development
Pancreas: blood glucose levels; adrenal: emergency response
Pancreas: emergency response; adrenal: blood glucose levels

2.

(03.02 LC)

In a reflex arc, what is the destination of neural impulses beginning in one of the ventral roots of the spinal cord? (2 points)

Effector
Receptor
Gray matter
White matter

3.

(03.02 LC)

Which of the following is a function of the spinal cord? (2 points)

To receive instructions from the brain and provide feedback about body position and balance
To route instructions from the brain to the appropriate body parts via spinal nerves
To monitor and adjust the composition of blood
To trigger and mediate emotional responses

4.

(01.01 MC)

Which of the following correctly differentiates how an anatomist versus a physiologist would study the effects of a muscoskeletal disease? (2 points)

Anatomist: effect on muscle contraction; Physiologist: effect on tendon thickness
Anatomist: effect on tendon thickness; Physiologist: effect on muscle contraction
Anatomist: effect on bone metabolism; Physiologist: effect on bone growth
Anatomist: effect on bone growth; Physiologist: effect on bone metabolism

5.

(01.05 HC)

A patient with burns to the skin complains of numbness and difficulty staying warm. Based on this information, diagnose which layers of skin were damaged and the degree of the burns. Explain your diagnoses. (5 points)

6.

(02.03 MC)

The following are required steps in the sliding filament theory of muscle contraction:

  1. Nerve impulse reaches the muscle.
  2. Action potential travels down T-tubules.
  3. Calcium binds to troponin.
  4. Tropomyosin moves.

What would be the correct order of the steps? (2 points)

4, 3, 2, 1
1, 2, 3, 4
3, 1, 2, 4
3, 2, 1, 4

7.

(01.06 MC)

“Osteonecrosis is a disease caused by reduced blood flow to bones in the joints. In people with healthy bones, new bone is always replacing old bone. In osteonecrosis, the lack of blood causes the bone to break down faster than the body can make enough new bone.”

Based on this passage and your knowledge of bone, what is one way that reduced blood flow could cause osteonecrosis? (2 points)

Inadequate opening within the perforating canals
Inadequate opening within the Haversian canal
Inadequate nutrients delivered to the osteoclasts
Inadequate nutrients delivered to the osteoblasts

8.

(03.03 LC)

This figure shows a right lateral view of the brain. Letter A indicates the bun-shaped structure located at the base of the brain just posterior to where the brain connects to the spinal cord. Letter B indicates the side regions of the upper part of the brain, which contain many convoluted ridges of tissue. Letter C indicates the front regions of the upper part of the brain, which contain many convoluted ridges of tissue. Letter D indicates the top regions of the upper part of the brain, which contain many convoluted ridges of tissue.

Image Courtesy of 3DScience.com

Which letter indicates the parietal lobe of the cerebrum? (2 points)

A
B
C
D

9.

(02.02 MC)

If a connective tissue disease was adversely affecting the sarcolemma, what symptoms might be presented? (2 points)

The patient’s muscles would not be able to receive the nerve stimuli needed for a muscle contraction.
The patient’s muscles would not be able to store the calcium ions needed for a muscle contraction.
The patient’s muscles would not have the blood supply needed for a muscle contraction.
The patient’s muscles would be fragile and unable to stand the force of a muscle contraction.

10.

(01.06 MC)

Which of the following could be caused by depressed osteoblast activity? (2 points)

Low blood calcium levels and a lack of bone growth
High blood calcium levels and excessive bone growth
Low blood calcium levels and excessive bone growth
High blood calcium levels and a lack of bone growth

11.

(01.02 MC)

Image Courtesy of 3DScience.com

The golfer’s right arm is moving in which anatomical directions in the picture above? (2 points)

Lateral and inferior
Lateral and superior
Proximal and anterior
Distal and anterior

12.

(03.06 MC)

Which of the following shows the correct order in which light information travels through the eye? (2 points)

Lens, pupil, retina, optic nerve
Pupil, lens, retina, optic nerve
Pupil, lens, optic nerve, retina
Lens, pupil, optic nerve, retina

13.

(03.01 MC)

You smell a rose and smile at its lovely scent. What type of nerve is mostly likely responsible for sending a message about the rose’s scent from your nose to your brain? (2 points)

Spinal motor
Cranial motor
Spinal sensory
Cranial sensory

14.

(01.03 MC)

This is a line graph showing blood volume on the y axis and time on the x axis. The plot line is shown in red. The line starts about one quarter of the way up the y axis at point A. The line then quickly increases to point B, which is almost at the top of the y axis but only about a tenth of the way across the x axis. The line then gradually descends, reaching point C approximately midway across the x axis and midway up the y axis. The plot line begins to level out, only slightly decreasing before reaching point D, the endpoint.

Image Courtesy of 3DScience.com

Based on the graph above, which letter indicates the onset of a hematoma at the break site? (2 points)

A
B
C
D

15.

(02.01 LC)

This colored diagram shows the anterior muscles of the human body. There are four labeled arrows (A-D). “A” is pointing to the large pair of round muscles that occupy the chest. “B” is pointing to the row of square shaped muscles on the anterior side of the abdomen. “C” is pointing to a large muscle group on the anterior side of the right thigh. “D” is pointing to the muscle that occupies the medial side of the lower left leg.

Image Courtesy of 3DScience.com

Which label on the diagram designates the rectus abdominis? (2 points)

A
B
C
D

16.

(03.04 MC)

Which of the following correctly describes the series of events occurring during a parasympathetic nervous system response? (2 points)

Stimulation of cranial regions; cranial root ganglion; acetylcholine release
Stimulation of cranial regions; cranial root ganglion; norepinephrine release
Stimulation of thoracic or lumbar spinal regions; chain ganglion; acetylcholine release
Stimulation of thoracic or lumbar spinal regions; chain ganglion; norepinephrine release

17.

(03.01 MC)

After narrowly dodging a car accident, your sympathetic nervous system was activated. If you measured your vital signs at this time, which of the following would you observe? (2 points)

Your breathing rate decreased.
Your blood volume decreased.
Your breathing rate increased.
Your blood volume increased.

18.

(01.06 HC)

A person has a bone fracture and takes a painkiller that causes blood-vessel constriction. Why might this painkiller actually slow bone healing? Specifically describe how the drug would affect the three stages of bone healing. (5 points)

19.

(03.07 MC)

Which of the following correctly matches examples of endocrine and exocrine glands? (2 points)

Exocrine = pancreas; endocrine = sweat glands
Exocrine = sweat glands; endocrine = pancreas
Exocrine = wax gland of ears; endocrine = mucous glands
Exocrine = mucous glands; endocrine = wax gland of ears

20.

(01.02 MC)

This figure shows an anterior view of the left knee. A horizontal red line cuts perpendicularly across the knee.

Image Courtesy of 3DScience.com

Which of the following precisely describes the cut made through the knee in the image above? (2 points)

A transverse cut through the anterior side of the knee
A sagittal cut through the anterior side of the knee
A transverse cut through the posterior side of the knee
A sagittal cut through the posterior side of the knee

21.

(01.05 LC)

This figure shows a front view of the skeleton with several of the bones labeled. Bone A is the temporal bone located on the left side of the skull. Bone B is the sternum, centrally located on the anterior side of the rib cage. Bone C is the lumbar region of the vertebral column. Bone D includes the group of bones in the left wrist. Bone E is the right pelvic bone located in the hip. Bone F is the right femur located in the upper leg. Bone G is the left clavicle, also known as the collarbone, which connects the sternum to the left shoulder blade. Bone H is the left cheekbone located on the middle part of the face.

Image Courtesy of 3DScience.com

Which of the following are parts of the axial skeleton? (2 points)

Rib cage and vertebral column
Vertebral column and pelvic girdle
Shoulder girdle and pelvic girdle
Upper arm and shoulder girdle

22.

(03.05 MC)

If a poison is ingested that prevents the release of acetylcholine, which one of the following would occur at a myoneural junction? (2 points)

Sodium and potassium gates on the motor end plate will not close.
Sodium and potassium gates on the motor end plate will not open.
Sodium and potassium gates on the axon will not close.
Sodium and potassium gates on the axon plate will not close.

23.

(01.04 MC)

In the skin, the epidermis can be compared to which of the following? (2 points)

A wall that protects a country from invaders
A ship that transports cargo
A telephone line used to communicate information
A switch that turns a light on

24.

(01.02 MC)

The diaphragm is ___________ to the thoracic cavity and _________ to the pelvic cavity. (2 points)

inferior; superior
superior; anterior
posterior; inferior
superior; inferior

25.

(01.02 MC)

A gross anatomy professor requests that the students cut a transverse section from a specimen and place it on a slide, producing a superior view of the section. In which direction would the students cut the specimen, and how would they position the cut section on the slide? (2 points)

Inferior to superior, and place the section left side down on the slide
Inferior to superior, and place the section right side down on the slide
Right to left, and place the section superior side down on the slide
Right to left, and place the section inferior side down on the slide

26.

(01.06 MC)

A person develops a disease in which her immune system attacks her own connective tissue. Where would this disease have the greatest impact? (2 points)

Tendons and cartilage
Tendons and the epidermis
Muscles and the spinal cord
Muscles and bone

27.

(03.07 MC)

A chemical signal that travels through the bloodstream is part of the _____________ system, while a chemical signal released into a synapse by an axon is part of the ____________system. (2 points)

exocrine; nervous
endocrine; exocrine
exocrine; endocrine
endocrine; nervous

28.

(01.03 MC)

An anthropologist finds the following at a human burial site: 20 ribs, 24 vertebrae, 2 hyoid bones, and 6 phalanges. What does this evidence suggest about the number of humans buried at this site, and why? (2 points)

One human buried here, as humans have 20 ribs per individual
One human buried here, as humans have 24 vertebrae per individual
Two humans buried here, as humans have one hyoid bone per individual
Two humans buried here, as humans have 10 ribs per individual

29.

(03.05 MC)

Drug addiction has reduced the number of receptors in the addict’s neural synapses. How will this affect signal transduction at the synapse? (2 points)

Less neurotransmitter will be produced by the presynaptic cell.
More neurotransmitter will be produce by the presynaptic cell.
More ion channels will open in the postsynaptic cell.
Fewer ion channels will open in the postsynaptic cell.

30.

(01.05 LC)

This figure shows a front view of the human skeleton with several bones labeled. Bone A is the sternum, centrally located on the anterior side of the rib cage. Bone B is the humerus, the upper bone of the arm. Bone C is one of the bones of the fingers. Bone D is the tibia located in the lower leg. Bone E is the right pelvic bone located in the hip. Bone F is the right femur located in the upper leg. Bone G are the bones of the middle toe. Bone H is the left temporal bone located in the skull. Bone I is the lumbar region of the vertebral column.

Image Courtesy of 3DScience.com

Based on the image above, which of the following is part of the appendicular skeleton? (2 points)

A
I
G
H

31.

(03.02 LC)

This diagram shows a cross section of the spinal cord. The cross-section is primarily light colored tissue surrounding a butterfly shaped core of dark colored tissue. Letter A indicates one of the two projections of darker colored tissue on the dorsal side of the cross section. Letter B indicates one of the two projections of darker colored tissue on the ventral side of the cross section. Letter C indicates a nerve that branches and connects to the left projection of darker colored tissue on the dorsal side of the cross section. Letter D indicates a nerve that branches and connects to the left projection of darker colored tissue on the ventral side of the cross section.

Image Courtesy of 3DScience.com

Which structure would contain sensory nerve fibers? (2 points)

A
B
C
D

32.

(01.06 MC)

This is an image of the inferior epiphysis of a vertically oriented bone. The growth plate is shown crossing horizontally through the epiphysis just above the three knob-shaped structures at the very end of the bone. A fracture has occurred diagonally through the epiphysis. The fracture extends across the left third of the epiphysis, traveling from the shaft to the low area between the leftmost knob and the middle knob to reach the end of the bone. The fracture travels perpendicularly through the growth plate.

Image Courtesy of 3DScience.com

“Each long bone has at least two growth plates, also called epiphyseal plates. The growth plate is responsible for adding length to the bone and, therefore, determines the future length and shape of the mature bone.”

Based on this description, how will the fracture depicted in the image above affect the bone’s growth? (2 points)

Bone growth will decrease.
Bone growth will increase.
Bone growth will not be affected.
Bone growth will not occur.

Tags: Human anatomy

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